The sun emits an electromagnetic radiation of different wavelength.

spektar svjetlaThe light is the electromagnetic radiation within electromagnetic spectrum perceived by eyesight. It is a radiation energy arisen by atomic changes in the physical structure of substance, which spreads from its source in all directions and expands in waves. The scale range of the wavelength spreads from the extremely short gamma rays emitted by the radioactive materials to the radiolands whose length is described in kilometers.

What does emit the energy transmitted by the electromagnetic wave? – ELECTRONS

Electrons in the material titrate around the balanced point and emit the energy in photons which spread around the space. Photons do not have an inaction mass, but are a pure energy. Eletromanetic waves are waves that consist of ‘’photons’’.

Electromagnetic waves are special because they do not need an expansion medium. The light does not need the medium for its expansion!

What is usually thought while speking about ‘’light’’ is the white light. What is considered as the white light is not homogenous – it is a mixture of all wavelengths of visible spectrum from 400 nm to 700 nm (nanometer or one billionth of a metre) in approximately equal extent.

The visible spectrum appears in nature as a rainbow. In a laboratory the visible spectrum is represented by passing and aberration of the white light through the glass prism.

The spectrum is often divided into three broaden bands of blue, green and red colours. In fact, there are great number of colours between 400 and 700 nm.

The spectrum’s colours are the purest possible colours.

Dissipation of the white light into visible spectrum and its anew acquisition into daylight was demonstrated by English scientist Sir Isaac Newton in 1704.



Lunas colour spectrum is based on density (velocity) of electromagnetic waves of a particular colour. Thus the density of dots or coverage of area with dots follows the velocity of electromagnetic waves of a specific colour. The purple colour has got the densest, while the red has got the sparsest inscription.

The main particle of this system is a dot. However, it is not as the Braille alphabet. This system represents the row of authentic labels which cannot be compared to the letters of the Braille alphabet. One eventual similarity can happen if we use the dots of the same size as in the Braille alphabet while labeling the colours. Depending on the context in which they are used, they can be of the same size as the dots of the alphabet for blind people. But they cannot be larger because the significance of the label is lost then.

The spatial mark of the label is undefinable. Although it is shown in this entry in squares, it is not proposed by the rules of this system. This proves a great authenticity of each label and enables an application on both, small and large surfaces.



Blue, yellow, red

Blue colour is labelled with a smaller amount of dense dots (5-7) arranged on the surface. Minimal number of groups necessary for appearance of blue is three.
Yellow colour is labelled with vertical lines made of a single row of dots. It should consist of at least three lines of approximately the same height.
Red is labelled with sparse amount of dots which are arranged irregularly on the surface. Desirable minimal number of dots in appearance of red is five.

Black and white

Unlike the above mentioned colours, black and white possess the polarity.
Black is labelled with a single slash line, which is curved left. Alternative version is the groups of dots whose movement is toward upward left. Alternative version is used when there is ability of replacement for the yellow colour.
White is labelled with a single slash line, which is curved right and additional twist on the right top. The twist makes an additional difference between these two labels because they are possible to be replaced if it isn’t there. As for the yellow colour, they have to be shown with at least three lines in order to know what colour it is and the additional explanation should be given if there are less of them.


Green, orange, purple

While mixing blue and yellow, we get the green colour: How do we mix them? We take perpendicular of yellow and the groups of dots arranged on the surface and vertical lines that are sparse on the surface.

Orange is created by mixing yellow and red. How do we mix them? We take vertical lines of yellow and sparse drift of red.
We create vertical lines made of sparse drifted dots. Purple is labelled with dense drift of dots which are also irregularly arranged. Minimal number of dots is ten. It is created by mixing blue and red colour. How do we get it? We take dense amount of blue dots. The space between the clusters is filled with sparse drift of red dots.


Violet, Cyan, Chartreuse, Amber, Vermilion, Magenta

Tertiary colours are mixture of primary and secondary colours. They get the characteristics of both colours and follow the velocity of electromagnetic waves of related colour of spectrum by density of inscription.

Violet colour consists of alternate arranged small clusters of blue dots and bigger planes of dense arranged dots of purple colour.

Chartreuse consists of regularly arranged vertical dots which create green lines. Regularity of arrangement is based on vertical lines of yellow dots.

Amber colour consists of alternate sparse arranged vertical lines of orange dots and sparse arranged red dots.

Magenta colour consists of alternate sparse arranged red dots and bigger planes of dense arranged purple dots.

Mixing Black and white

While mixing black and white we get the grey colour. We take the movement direction of black and white lines which are quite smaller, follow the direction of black. It is important to emphasize that while putting the grey colour, it is enough to do it once, but it has to contain at least three lines of white. Also, the lines only while showing the grey, do not need to have a twist which differentiates white from black, because the presence of white in grey is shown by movement direction of lines. If we label a larger surface with grey colour ( e.g. sky colouring), then the label for grey can be repeated because one drift cannot mark the whole surface.

Brown and pink

Brown colour is created by mixing orange and purple, and pink by mixing red and white. As we mix red and blue and thus get purple, in the same way brown and pink are created.
Pink colour includes the same procedure as with the purple and brown, but here the rule with the twist should be taken into consideration.

Skin colour

Cream colour is created by mixing white and yellow. The line of white is blended with the vertical line of yellow and thus the combination of the cream colour is created.

Golden and silver

Golden is actually a brightened yellow. Brightness is shown with line which represents rays. This fact is used to show the golden colour as well. Slash lines which are sparse and randomly arranged, represent golden colour. The lines represent yellow.
Silver colour is actually the brightened grey. Following the example of the golden colour, the samples of grey are sparse arranged and the brightness is combined with the grey.


Empty surface represents transmittance. Level of transmittance in a particular colour is determined by the amount of the empty space around the drifted label of each of the colour. To get the feature of transmittance, at least one quarter of the space provided for labelling should be empty. In this case the meaning of transmittance is attached to emptiness. The bigger space means the higher level of transmittance. Absolutely empty space labels the transmittance without colour. Depending on the surface on which the colour is drifted, while using the labels in visual arts, a blind person can design the features, but not the structure.

Lightening and darkening

Lightening and darkening are created by a content of black or white in a particular colour. It can be demonstrated like this:
The space provided for one of the labels for the colour is divided into two parts. On the left is the label for the colour while on the right the lines of black and white are drifted and they represent percentages. One line marks the content of ten per cent. On the description there is 70% of white apropos black in purple. We got the description for light or dark purple.

Mutually mixing of colours

In the same way we show the percentage of black and white in the particular colour, the percentages of other colours are shown in the same way during the mutually mixing of colours. On the description we can see the mixure of 30 % of purple and 70% of red colour.
The second description between mixed colours gives the overview of the dominant shade of the given colour.

Brightness of colours

The star is a celestial body that shines. The presence of brightness in colour is labelled with trigonous emptiness in the label. This trigonous space symbolizes the ray shone by stars. This labelling does not impose to the strict rules. Because it is impossible to predict all the positions in which the label can find its place where the brightness will be shown in the label, it is conceded to decision of a particular person who uses this label.

Combining of colours

Is something blue-red or green-yellow or orange-grey – that is the question we often meet with. By using this system we can find it out. The space used for one label can simply be arranged and two or more labels thus can be made within it. The blind person by touching it can understand that it is not the colour percentage of one within another, but it is about the presence of more colours in one area. Mixture of blue and red makes in some extent a particular shade of purple, but red and blue one next to the other do not create purple, but represent themselves marking the subject not as one coloured, but bicoloured.


CMYK mixing colours relates to everything connected to the print on some foundation (paper, fabric, plastic, metal, etc.) by dyestuff that contain pigments. CMYK system of displaying the colours has all the shades of colours. Using the labels of Lunas spectrum, colours can be shown in CMYK technique. In square space four rows are defined and each of them shows one the CMYK colours. On the bottom line of the square, there are lines which show tenners of percentages. By drifting CMYK colours to the particular line, we create the specific shade. It gives the possibility of designing by the blind people.